Figures

  • Figure 1 The Internet decreased collaboration and communication costs and increased complexity (1.0)

  • Figure 2 The Internet decentralized some monopolies but created new network-based monopolies (1.1)

  • Figure 3 Thesis Structure (1.1)

  • Figure 4 Machine learning and artificial intelligence architectures for drug development (Shah, 2018) (2.5)

  • Figure 5 Diagram of my theory of change (3.0)

  • Figure 6 Image of a simple system inspired by figure from Donella Meadows’s essay (Meadows, 1997) (3.1)

  • Figure 7 Three systems connected together (3.1)

  • Figure 8 Nine systems connected together (3.1)

  • Figure 9 A system of systems (3.1)

  • Figure 10 Evolutionary dynamics version of interacting systems (3.1)

  • Figure 11 Graph of the use of the word “cybernetics” in books from 1940-2018 according to Google Books (3.1)

  • Figure 12 Krebs Cycle of Creativity (Oxman, 2016) (3.2)

  • Figure 13 Image of shapes of disciplinary specialization (3.2)

  • Figure 14 “Multi-disciplinary people” or “M” people are deep in more than two disciplines (3.2)

  • Figure 15 “M” people can bridge people who are specialists in other disciplines (3.2)

  • Figure 16 “Antidisciplinary people” are also looking for opportunities between the disciplines (3.2)

  • Figure 17 A diverse combination of I, T, π, multi-disciplinary and antidisciplinary people create a vibrant ecosystem of depth,breadth, and emergent disciplinary interactions (3.2)

  • Figure 18 “Present situation: Disciplines as clusters of specialties, leaving interdisciplinary gaps” (Campbell, 1969) (3.2)

  • Figure 19 “Ideal situation: Fish-scale model of omniscience” (Campbell, 1969) (3.2)

  • Figure 20 Diagram for the structure of teaching at the Bauhaus. Source: Walter Gropius, 1922 (3.2)

  • Figure 21 Krebs Cycle of Creativity III - Practice. Source: Neri Oxman, March 2018 (3.2)

  • Figure 22 Structure of telecommunications ecosystem before the Internet (3.2)

  • Figure 23 Structure of telecommunications ecosystem after the Internet and its layers (3.2)

  • Figure 24 Lessig and the four quadrants. Image by Iyad Rahwan (3.2)

  • Figure 25 A Sigmoid curve otherwise known as an S1+e curve is defined by the formula S(x) = 1 −x = ex ex+1 (3.3)

  • Figure 26 The first patent drawing for Lizzie Magie’s board game, The Landlord’s Game, dated January 5, 1904 (3.3)

  • Figure 27 Heart Attack Grill (3.3)

  • Figure 28 Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun (1655 – September 1716) (3.3)

  • Figure 29 Media Lab Consolidated P&L (4.1)

  • Figure 30 Master’s Applications by Gender (4.1)

  • Figure 31 Master’s Applications by Race/Ethnicity (4.1)

  • Figure 32 Total Number of Applications (Master’s and PhD) (4.1)

  • Figure 33 Creative commons license spectrum between public domain and all rights reserved (4.3)

  • Figure 34 The Open Source Initiative (OSI) logo (4.3)

  • Figure 35 The Principality of Sealand where we ran the Havenco business. Photo by Ryan Lackey (4.3)

  • Figure 36 The PSINet point of presence in my bathroom circa 1994 (4.3)

  • Figure 37 My blog in 2002 (4.3)

  • Figure 38 Media sources shared on Twitter during the election (4.3)

  • Figure 39 Clinton and Trump supporters live in their own Twitter worlds (4.3)

  • Figure 40 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (5.1)

  • Figure 41 A graphic from the award ceremony for the MIT Media Lab Disobedience Award in 2017



Tables

  • Table 1 Innovation principles for the age of the Internet (4.1)

  • Table 2 Havenco business plan chart of quality and law-enforcement trade-offs (Appendix D)